Espacio virtual creado realmente por Nicanor Domínguez. Dedicado a la historia del Sur-Andino peruano-boliviano.

domingo, 8 de abril de 2007

Arqueología Fantástica: ¿Paititi de los jesuitas? (2002)



Carta manuscrita en italiano, anónima y sin fecha, sobre el "Regno di Paytiti" en el 'Archivum Romanum Societatis Iesu' (Foto tomada de: http://www.palkiewicz.com/ekspedycje/index.php?p=paiti4)


Arqueólogo italiano Mario Polia (Foto de 1997 tomada de: http://www.peruan-ita.org/personaggi/polia-condor.htm)

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Jesuitas romanos aseguran que mítica ciudad El Dorado existió

Diario Las Últimas Noticias, Lunes 4 de febrero de 2002

Roma (Ansa). - Un documento conservado en el archivo romano de la Compañía de Jesús demuestra que El dorado, el mito de los conquistadores que oyeron hablar de un reino escondido en medio de la selva desbordante de oro, existió realmente.

El documento, que fue publicado por la revista ’’Archeo’’, en realidad es una carta que no lleva firma, destinatario ni fecha, que se remonta probablemente a fines de 1.500 o principios de 1.600.

Está conservado en una colección de documentos originales autógrafos que llevan como título ’’Peruana Historia’’ y contiene un testimonio según el cual el Paititi o El dorado, fue descubierto a fines del siglo XV y fue evangelizado por los misioneros jesuitas.

El texto revela que el general de la Compañía -probablemente el padre Claudio Acquaviva o el padre Muzio Vitelleschi, en esa época- fue informado de la noticia de la existencia de este riquísimo reino por el Provincial del Peru, y obtuvo el permiso del Papa para evangelizar a sus habitantes.

La noticia demostraría que la Iglesia no sólo sabía de la existencia de El dorado, sino que conocía la ubicación exacta, teniendo en cuenta que el padre Andrea López fue informado por los indios que bautizó.

La ubicación exacta de este paraíso dorado que nutrió la imaginación de los conquistadores, no se conoce, pero también para ello hay una explicación que da la revista Archeo: el secreto fue celosamente custodiado por la compañía de Jesús ante el temor de que si se revelaba se podía desencadenar la fiebre del oro.

Con respecto a las características de El dorado, el documento atribuye a la gente que lo poblaban el conocimiento de la metalurgia y de la arquitectura monumental y una organización política más bien evolucionada, con una monarquía, que recuerda el imperio incaico.

La carta autógrafa, naturalmente, también habla del oro que cubría metros y metros de muro de construcciones, pero sobre todo refiere detalladamente el proyecto para la edificación de una sede para los padres de la Compañía y de una iglesia con bloques de oro macizo.

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• Ver: http://www.angelfire.com/al4/ipri2002/noticia608jesuitas.htm

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Manuscrito jesuita añade indicios sobre existencia de El Dorado

Por Iñaki Alvarez-Miranda -- Roma, 19 de Febrero de 2002

EFE - El descubrimiento de un manuscrito del siglo XVI en el archivo romano de la Compañía de Jesús ha arrojado nuevos indicios sobre El Dorado, la mítica ciudad de los incas que una expedición pretende ahora localizar en la espesura de la amazonía peruana

El documento supone la confirmación histórica de la existencia de "Paititi", nombre dado por los indígenas a la ciudad construida en oro de la que tuvieron noticia los primeros conquistadores españoles, según el periodista y explorador Jacek Palkiewicz, que se prepara a viajar a la región. "Se trata de prueba de gran validez que nos hace trabajar en nuestro proyecto con más entusiasmo todavía", aseguró hoy a EFE Palkiewicz, empeñado en la organización de una expedición científica que a partir del próximo mes de junio recorrerá la inaccesible región selvática de la cuenca del río Madre de Dios, en Perú.

Según la transcripción del manuscrito que ofrece el último número de la revista italiana de arqueología "Archeo", los jesuitas llevaron a cabo la conversión y bautizo de los habitantes de "Paititi", localidad situada "a diez días de viaje de Cuzco (Perú)". La descripción de un reino "muy rico y adornado de oro" y de su lujosa corte aparece en el relato del jesuita Andrés López, incluido en el tomo primero de "Peruana Historia (1567-1625)", según fue descrito en su día al General de los jesuitas y al Papa, quien otorgó a la orden la exclusiva para su evangelización. La crónica del religioso español cuenta como el rey de Paititi, tras convertirse, ofreció construir "una iglesia hecha con bloques de oro macizo" y que incluso las vajillas eran de este metal.

Para el arqueólogo italiano Mario Polia, que reside desde hace tres décadas en Perú y es autor de la investigación, el manuscrito inédito supone una prueba de la "existencia real" de la mítica ciudad, cuya localización exacta los jesuitas trataron de mantener secreta para evitar una "fiebre del oro". Por este motivo el documento no ofrece detalles geográficos precisos sobre su situación, lo que sin embargo no hace rendirse a los modernos exploradores del siglo XXI, -entre los que se encuentra Polia- y que tratarán de localizar Paititi con ayuda de las más modernas tecnologías, incluidos radares de tierra.

El hecho de que sus fabulosos tesoros hayan podido ser expoliados tampoco preocupa a Palkiewicz, quien insistió en que el interés de su expedición es "científico y arqueológico". "El oro no nos interesa" aseguró al insistir en que su proyecto cuenta con el apoyo del gobierno peruano, muy interesado en el atractivo turístico que puede suponer descubrir "El Dorado".

El explorador italiano de origen polaco explicó a EFE que partirá mañana, miércoles, hacia Lima para ultimar algunos detalles de la expedición, a la que el Ejército del país andino ha ofrecido helicópteros y ayuda logística para el transporte de material y de embarcaciones para adentrarse en una región hasta hoy inexplorada.

Palkiewicz, que reside desde hace años en Italia, ha descrito en una veintena de libros sus viajes a los más recónditos rincones del planeta, cuenta con una amplia experiencia en la zona, ya que en 1996 dirigió otra expedición que consiguió localizar con exactitud las fuentes del río Amazonas.

La futura expedición se prepara desde hace dos años y contará con los más avanzados medios tecnológicos, con la intención de tener éxito allí donde numerosos intentos anteriores han fracasado. El último de ellos fue el del antropólogo noruego Lars Hafksjold, que desapareció sin dejar rastro en 1997 en el "infierno verde" del río Madidi.

Con un presupuesto superior al millón de dólares, la nueva iniciativa será financiada gracias a diversos patrocinadores privados. Se tratará de un viaje de un mes de duración, con un grupo de una veintena de estudiosos de Italia, Perú, Polonia, Brasil y Rusia, acompañados de un equipo de apoyo de más de cincuenta personas.

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• Ver: http://www.angelfire.com/al4/ipri2002/noticia634manuscrito.htm

• Ver: http://www.rosavientos.tk/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=17

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Scientist: Legendary City of El Dorado Exists

By Rossella Lorenzi, Discovery News

Feb. 25, 2002 - El Dorado, the fabled city of gold, did exist and was even evangelized by Jesuit missionaries, according to the findings of a Lima University archaeologist.

Called "Paititi" by the Incas and "El Dorado" by the Spaniards, the mythical city is thought to have been the last place of refuge for the Incas when they fled with their treasures ahead of the advancing Spanish conquerors in 1532.

Mario Polia, an Italian archaeologist who teaches at Lima's Pontifical Catholic University, discovered an ancient document that describes a city with walls covered in gold leaf. "Paititi is not a myth, it really existed. It was discovered at the end of the 16th century by missionaries of the Society of Jesus, who converted the king and his court," Polia wrote in the latest issue of the archaeological review 'Archeo'.

The "report of a miracle that took place in the Kingdom of Paititi for God's mercy" is part of a collection called "Peruana Historia" (Peruvian history), kept in the Roman Archives of the Society of Jesus.

It tells of the extraordinary encounter of Father Adrea Lopez with the inhabitants of Paititi, "a very wealthy city adorned with gold, silver and precious stones."

According to the report, the order's Father General informed the Pope of the discovery, asking and obtaining permission to evangeliza the area. Polia believes that the Vatican never revealed Paititi's location, fearing a gold rush and mass hysteria.

El Dorado has lured many explorer over the past five centuries: among them famed British army surveyor Colonel Percy Harrison Fawcett, who left in search of Paititi in 1925, and more recently, a 1972 Franco-American expedition led by Bob Nichols, and the 1997 exploration of Norwegian anthropologist Lars Hafksjold.

The latest explorer to set off in search of the legend is Jacek Palkiewicz, best known for discovering the real source of the Amazon river in 1996. Palkiewicz left last week for a reconnaisance trip into the inaccessible jungles of the Madre de Dios River basin. He will then begin a systematic search in June with the help of state-of-the-art technology.

"I have been working on this project for two years. I even pinpointed a waterfall and a square lake which, according to legend, lead to Paititi. There are extremely good chances I will find El Dorado," Palkiewicz told Discovery News.

But Polia is skeptical. "This sounds like another groundless claim. I know for sure Paititi is not in the Madre de Dios area, namely where everybody has been looking," he said.

Brian S. Bauer, assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Illinois at Chicago and one of the leading authorities on the Inca, is also skeptical.

"All this only shows that the dream of finding a lost city of gold is as strong for us today as it was for the Spaniards in the 17th century," he said.

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• Ver: http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20020225/eldorado.html

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A Jesuit manuscript

* Excerpt from the book of Jacek Palkiewicz and Andrzej Kaplanek 'El Dorado - hunting the legend' (2006)

February 4, 2002 press services worldwide issued a sensational report concerning the discovery of a document finally able to crack one of the most important mysteries of all time - a document confirming the existence of Paititi. A few days later Richard Owen a correspondent with 'The Times' in Rome, published an article entitled "Jesuit manuscript may hold key to El Dorado quest." This news was echoed in the same tone by 'Die Zeit', 'El Pais', 'Le Monde', 'The New York Times' and others.

This electrifying information was revealed by Italian archeologist Mario Polia in a piece published in the specialist monthly 'Archeo'. Dr. Polia has worked in Peru for 30 years and is currently supervising a scientific mission from the Centro Studi e Ricerche Ligabue in Venice. His arrival in Rome was connected with the need to collect additional materials for a scientific paper written at the Pontificial Catholic University in Lima. For this purpose he paid a visit to the Roman archives of the Jesuit Order, selecting seven thousand pages of documents and accounts sent by Jesuit missionaries from Peru during the Spanish conquest. The order, whose establishment was confirmed in a Bull by Pope Paul III in 1540, was charged with spreading the principles of the Catholic faith, first and foremost papal interests, since the greater glory of God was understood as the victory of the true Catholic faith over heresy. The organization of the order and its brand of asceticism created a one-of-a-kind religious institution with a structure approaching that of the military. In addition to the effective conduct of religious propaganda and modern evangelical activities, the order was renowned for its mission and educational work.

Reports dispatched by Jesuits to their headquarters in Rome provide excellent research material for contemporary historians. Browsing through the first volume of 'Peruana Historia', a collection of manuscripts from the years 1567-1625 (Divisione Archivio de la Antigua Compania, 1540-1773), Polia ran across a letter on page 38, which soon had his blood pumping. The text of this missive indicated that Claudio Aquaviva, the fifth general of the Jesuit Order from 1581-1615, or his successor Muzio Vitelleschi, had been informed by one Father Andre Lopez, rector of the Jesuit college in Cuzco, of the priest's unusual visit to the residents of the mysterious Payititi. The manuscript goes on to express the pope's approval of the evangelization of the people living in these lands. The scientific clamor was understandable. Here for the first time was a credible document proving the existence of Paititi!

Fr. Lopez's adventure with the people of Paititi began with the baptism of several natives who, unable to accept the harsh treatment of the Spanish, fled to their city of origin, a place tucked away in the jungle, taking with them a wooden cross given them by a missionary. These new Christian converts labored to tell their compatriots about the sacrifice made by the crucified Christ, the power of the pope and might of the Spanish monarchy, the Spanish conquest to save souls, the tortures of hell and eternal bliss of the Christian heaven. Their attempt must have been quite inept, since they were subsequently ridiculed.

"What kind of god allows himself to be crucified and cannot be seen?" they were questioned. "The god of our forefathers, Inti - the god of the Sun, remains by our side throughout the day. We also feel the constant benevolence of the mighty Pachacamaca."

Only just converted, the Indians were called before the ruler of the city.

"How can you urge us to abandon the old gods if you murdered yours in the first place?" Failing to receive a satisfactory answer to this inquiry, this leaders invited Father Lopez to visit Paititi.

Farther on the document contains information about the civilizational accomplishments of the legendary city's population. They were familiar with metallurgy and erected monumental buildings using hewn stone as well as possessed administrational structures similar to those of the Inca. The manuscript described sacred architecture and temples whose walls were plaited with gold. From this information alone we can surmise that these were not the peoples of the Amazonian lowlands, who had no knowledge of metallurgy despite valuing metal instruments. Other documents mentioned attacks launched by primitive Indians on an Incan fortress in order to obtain hatchets and other copper tools. This information lends credibility to the hypothesis concerning Indians ensconced in the Amazon jungle following the definitive collapse of their empire, which coincided with the death of King Tupac Amaru and the Spanish capture of Vilcabamba in 1572.

The notes in the manuscript's upper left corner suggest that Lopez was born in 1544. With the release of these tidings, Polia launched his church career. In A Catalog of Castilla (1553-1576) on page 36 he discovered a few biographical notes. Lopez hailed from Villagarcia, entering the order January 8, 1565 following earlier studies in theology and courses in the fine arts. In 1592 he assumed the position of rector of the Jesuit College in Potosi, a Bolivian site famous for its silver mines. His date of death is missing. These dates create a convincing picture of Fr. Lopez and give the documents uncovered by Dr. Polia historic value, making him immune to charges of a lack of authenticity. After all it is hard to believe that the general of one of the most influential orders in the Catholic Church and the head of the Catholic Church could have been enmeshed in the creation of pure fiction.

The next day I board the first flight to Rome. I have to see this revolutionary document with my own eyes. The Roman Jesuit Archives, located at via Borgo Santo Spirito 8, are across the street from The Vatican. I am welcomed by the facility's friendly director, Fr. De Kok. He expresses understanding for my passion and in no time at all I am seated in a special room, along with a thick volume of documents written 50 years ago during the conquest of Peru. I hope to find clues that were meaningless to Mario Polia, but may have crucial significance for my research and future expedition. The lengthy text contains a great deal of information referring to a secret and puzzling city of "people as white as Germans," blue-eyed, blond and tall. This confirmation of the sensational accounts of travelers and adventurers who have ventured into the heart of the Amazon jungle mentions nothing about the focus of my attention - the location of Paititi.

Someone might ask: how, despite meticulous care in gathering even the smallest piece of information from mission territories for the archives, was such serious neglect possible? It is possible that the Jesuits, whose primary goals were to preach the teachings of the Catholic faith to pagan peoples, educate, help the poor and first and foremost defend the interests of the papacy, intended to keep that particular detail shrouded in secrecy in order to prevent a kind of "gold rush" that would certainly have catastrophic consequences for the people of the region. Perhaps with time they realized the value of avoiding the fatal mistakes committed by Pizarro and his gold-hungry soldiers.

A visit to the Jesuit archives has shown me just how much is hidden from the researcher's eye in South America. The colorful, tangled and chaotic times of the Incan empire, which lasted just under four centuries, are a labyrinth of true and legend, fact and fabrication. Some of these fairy tales were created by the Indians themselves, who masterly erased all knowledge of the deeds of their ancestors and manipulated history in order to lend their own rule even more radiance. Just as in Central America everything was hidden in the shadow of the Aztecs, so have convictions of Incan genius survived the collapse of their empire to the present day and successive generations of chroniclers and researches surpassed one another in boasting about the accomplishments of a small but ambitious tribe that appeared on the scene a mere 300 years before Pizarro.

Copyright © 2006 Jacek Palkiewicz

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• Ver: http://www.palkiewicz.com/ekspedycje/index.php?p=paiti4

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Archivo Romano

"Caretas", Edición Nº 1597, Lima, 9 de diciembre de 1999

MARIO Polia es un historiador y arqueólogo italiano que ha realizado investigaciones en el Perú durante veintiocho años. Sus últimas pesquisas, que le demandaron tres años, se concentran en una parte sustancial de la historia americana: las relaciones o informes que llevaron a cabo los misioneros jesuitas, entre los siglos XVI y XVIII, en torno de la cultura aborigen de la época. Un apartado apenas explorado es, sin duda, la religiosidad de los antiguos peruanos. Al respecto, la información contenida en el Archivo Romano -llamado así por el lugar de su ubicación- es valiosísima. Esta institución custodia incontables documentos jesuíticos, elaborados a lo largo de aproximadamente doscientos años. Fueron escritos por los miembros de la orden que se trasladaban a los confines del mundo. Los documentos relativos al Perú y al tema mencionado han sido estudiados minuciosamente por Polia, y coeditados por el Instituto Italiano de Cultura y el Fondo Editorial de la Universidad Católica. Gracias a 'La cosmovisión religiosa andina', hoy se cuenta con un panorama objetivo del sincretismo religioso.

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• Ver: http://www.caretas.com.pe/1999/1597/secciones/cultural.phtml

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